characterization of in vitro differentiating trophoblast stem cells.

by Jennifer Quinn

Written in English
Published: Pages: 112 Downloads: 817
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The trophectoderm is responsible for the initial implantation of the conceptus and the formation of the trophoblast components of the placenta. Trophoblast stem cells (TS) are an in vitro model of the trophectoderm lineage in the differentiating placenta. A transcriptional profile was used to analyze the expression of genes characteristic of different cell lineages throughout differentiation to determine if these cells could generate the cell lineages found in vivo. Differentiating TS cells express markers of the extraembryonic ectoderm, ectoplacental cone, labyrinth, spongiotrophoblast, glycogen cells and giant cells in a manner that mirrors in vivo development. Mash2 knockout TS were derived that in vivo do not generate spongiotrophoblast, have reduced labyrinth layer and increased giant cell layer. In vitro Mash2 KO TS cells did not express markers of the spongiotrophoblast but were able to give rise to other cell types, suggesting that they can model mutant placental development.

The Physical Object
Pagination112 leaves.
Number of Pages112
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL19217329M
ISBN 100494073993

  Characterization of Histone Modifications Associated with Inactive X-Chromosome in Trophoblast Stem Cells, eXtra-Embryonic Endoderm Cells and in In Vitro Derived Undifferentiated and Differentiated Epiblast Like Stem Cells. Cathérine Dupont. For in vitro studies, we used the rat trophoblast cell line RCHO The RCHO-1 cell line provides an effective in vitro model system for dissecting the trophoblast cell differentiation pathway (23, 51), as these cells exhibit many characteristics of trophoblast stem cells (15, 23, 44). Placenta and trophoblast: methods and protocols: overview II --In vivo analysis of trophoblast cell invasion in the human --In vitro analysis of trophoblast invasion --An in vitro model of trophoblast invasion of spiral arteries --In vivo models for studying homing and function of murine uterine natural killer cells --Immune and trophoblast.   The general molecular properties of hESCs lines can be examined by the expression of several transcripts, for example, the stage-specific antigens (SSEA-3 and SSEA-4), the glycoproteins tumor recognition antigen (TRA, TRA and TRA), germ cell tumor marker (GCTM-2), trophoblast giant (TG and 30), cluster of differentiation (CD9.

Satellite cells (SC) are muscle stem cells that can regenerate adult muscles upon injury. Most SC originate from PAX7+ myogenic precursors set aside during development. Although myogenesis has been studied in mouse and chicken embryos, little is known about human muscle development. Here, we report the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reporter lines in which . Trophoblasts are the first cell type to be specified during embryogenesis, and they are essential for placental morphogenesis and function. Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are the progenitor cells for all trophoblast lineages; control of TS cell differentiation into distinct trophoblast subtypes is not well understood. Mice lacking the transcription factor OVO-like 2 (OVOL2) fail to produce a. These apparently immortal stem cells in culture are termed trophoblast stem (TS) cells, and exhibit the potential to differentiate into multiple trophoblastic cell types in vitro, as well as in vivo. Even after multiple passages, TS cells retain the ability to participate in the normal development of chimeras and contribute exclusively to the. This research culminated in the first identification of the trophoblast stem cell and the first human hormone synthesizing cell system which scientists worldwide were able to use for new treatment for ovarian cancer. Pattillo retired from his position at Morehouse in , after a .

After gastrulation, the trophoblast is contiguous with the ectoderm of the embryo, and is referred to as the trophectoderm. After the first differentiation, the cells in the human embryo lose their totipotency and are no longer totipotent stem cells because they cannot form a trophoblast. They are now pluripotent stem cells. different cultures that will either stimulate growth of the stem cell lines or cause the stem cells to differentiate. The different types of stem cells are embryonic stem (ES) cells found in human embryos, embryonic germ (EG) cells isolated from an aborted fetus, and adult stem cells found in different organs and tissues in the human body.   Seungeun Yeo, Sangkyun Jeong, Janghwan Kim, Jee-Soo Han, Yong-Mahn Han and Yong-Kook Kang, Characterization of DNA methylation change in stem cell marker genes during differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, , 3, (), (). Examples of interesting research topics in Volume I of this two-book set include immortalization of endometrial cells, induction of trophoblast from embryonic stem cells, propagation of trophoblast stem cells, and microarray analysis of trophoblast cells. The principal focus of each chapter is on cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology.

characterization of in vitro differentiating trophoblast stem cells. by Jennifer Quinn Download PDF EPUB FB2

Stem cell differentiation into trophoblast cells provides a useful model for understanding the early development of the human placenta. A very important use of stem cells is to build in vitro disease models that can be used for drug screening [ 2 ], toxicology tests [ 3, 4 ] and to understand the molecular mechanisms of lineage generation [ 5 ].

Rcho-1 Trophoblast Stem Cells A Model System for Studying Trophoblast Cell Differentiation Namita Sahgal, Lindsey N. Canham, Brent Canham, and Michael J.

Soares Summary The biology of trophoblast cell development can be investigated using in vitro model sys-tems.

The Rcho-1 trophoblast stem cell line was derived from a rat choriocarcinoma and is an. Differentiation of trophoblast stem cells into trophoblast giant cells Trophoblast stem cells with diploid genomes are smaller in size and form compact colonies. Once the differentiation of TSCs was induced by removing FGF4 from the medium, the cells became progressively larger with very heterogeneous shape, size, and ploidy level (Fig.

1), as. features of TS cells d haTSCs can differentiate into specialized trophoblast cell types in vitro d haTSCs can chimerize E and term placentas Authors Tongtong Cui, Liyuan Jiang, Tianda Li,Liu Wang, Wei Li, Qi Zhou Correspondence [email protected] (W.L.), [email protected] (Q.Z.) In Brief Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are.

Article Derivation of Haploid Trophoblast Stem Cells via Conversion In Vitro Keli Peng,1,6 Xu Li,1,6 Congyu Wu,2,6 Yuna Wang,1 Jian Yu,3 Jinxin Zhang,1 Qian Gao,1,5 Wenhao Zhang,1 Qian Zhang,1 Yong Fan,4 Yang Yu,5 and Ling Shuai1,7,* SUMMARY Owing to their single genome, haploid cells are powerful to uncover unknown genes by performing.

However, human embryos are limited and the use of cancer cell lines for spheroid generation remains sub-optimal for research. Study design, size, duration: Experimental induced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into trophoblast and characterization of the trophoblast.

Three-dimensional culture systems and suitable substrates topographies demonstrated to drive stem cell fate in vitro by mechanical conditioning. For example, the Nichoid 3D scaffold remodels stem cells and shapes nuclei, thus promoting stem cell expansion and stemness maintenance.

However, the mechanisms involved in force transmission and in biochemical signaling at the basis of fate. Abstract. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that menstrual blood stands as a viable source of stem cells.

Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are morphologically and functionally similar to cells directly extracted from the endometrium, and present dual expression of mesenchymal and embryonic cell markers, thus becoming interesting tools for regenerative medicine.

Introduction. Lineage-specific stem cells are generally recognized as subpopulations, usually small in number, that exist in a unique niche, thereby allowing them to self-renew while simultaneously creating more specialized progeny that ultimately advance to yield fully differentiated cells ().It is assumed that placental stem cells, here termed trophoblast stem cells (TSC), exist in.

Although extraembryonic cell types can be found in the differentiated derivatives of human ES cells, human TS or XEN have yet to be isolated. This chapter outlines our current understanding of human extraembryonic stem cell populations and provides protocols to facilitate their differentiation from human ES cells and subsequent characterization.

of cell biological paradigms. These include the formation of motile and non-motile mononuclear and multinuclear trophoblast, alterations between faster and slower states of proliferation, changes in adhesive properties and further differentiation of the various trophoblast popu-lations.

In addition there is progressive local tissue. Primate ESC differentiate to trophoblasts. In Thomson et al [] reported the derivation of ES-like cells from rhesus monkey preimplantation blastocysts derived from natural mating and nonsurgically flushed from the cells had key characteristics of ESC, including the expression of surface markers characteristic of pluripotent cells, and the ability to form structures derived.

Rcho-1 trophoblast cells represent a stem cell population capable of differentiation along the trophoblast giant cell lineage [21]. The cells can be manipulated to proliferate or differentiate.

Comparisons were made with protein (Syncytin 1) and mRNA (Syncytin 1 and 2) expression in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) undergoing differentiation to trophoblast-like cells in vitro.

In total, 10 blastocysts (×3 or 4 replicates) were analysed and 4 hESC lines. The study was terminated after consistent observations of embryos were made. This chapter describes the data related to endothelial cells (ECs) and their progenitor, which can be prepared in embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation culture.

An in vitro system, that can induce EC differentiation and vascular formation from ES cells, and also the potential of thus induced EC for cell biological analyses, is also described. Abstract. Genome endoreduplication during mammalian development is a rare event for which the mechanism is unknown.

It first appears when fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) deprivation induces differentiation of trophoblast stem (TS) cells into the nonproliferating trophoblast giant (TG) cells required for embryo implantation.

In vitro, two types of stem cells can be established from embryos at the very early blastocyst stage, that is, trophoblast stem (TS) cells and ESCs [11–13].

In distinct culture condi-tions, both types of stem cells undergo self-renewal in vitro. Although both types of stem cells are derived from early. Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are considered putative stem cells as they differentiate into other subtypes of trophoblast cells.

To identify cells for future therapeutic strategies, we investigated whether TSCs have properties of stem/progenitor cells including self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into parenchymal cells of fetal organs, in vitro and in vivo.

seen when ES cells differentiate in vitro Martin F. Pera. ES cell differentiation Cartilage, bone, skin, nerves, gut and respiratory lining form when ES cells are injected differentiated cell reacquires stem cell phenotype.

• Despite preventive mechanisms adult stem cells may. Ullah Z, Kohn MJ, Yagi R, et al. () Differentiation of trophoblast stem cells into giant cells is triggered by p57/Kip2 inhibition of CDK1 activity. Genes and Development –   Characterization of Histone Modifications Associated with Inactive X-Chromosome in Trophoblast Stem Cells, eXtra-Embryonic Endoderm Cells and in In Vitro Derived Undifferentiated and Differentiated Epiblast Like Stem Cells.

Derivation and characterization of TSCs. (A): Morphology of trophoblast stem cell line R3 derived from /sv ×Rosa26‐MrtTA blastocysts. A picture of R1 ESC was shown. Left, ×40; right, × (B): Immunofluorescent staining showing that the R3 TSC line is positive for Cdx2.(C): The karyotype of the R3 TSC XX.(D): Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results.

Volume 1 provides readily reproducible protocols for studying embryo-uterine implantation, trophoblast cell development, and the organization and molecular characterization of the placenta.

Highlights include strategies for the isolation and culture of trophoblast cells from primates, ruminants, and rodents, and precise guidance to the.

Impact statement. Compared with the currently available in vitro placental barrier models, a novel three-dimensional coculture placental barrier model presented in this study morphologically and functionally modeled the true placental barrier. The use of human trophoblast stem cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells substantially improved the current model.

Recently, numerous studies have identified that immature cell populations including stem cells and progenitor cells can be found among “side-population” (SP) cells. Although SP cells isolated from some adult tissues have been reported elsewhere, isolation and characterization of human trophoblast SP remained to be reported.

In this study, HTR-8/SVneo cells and human primary villous. Metastasizing trophoblast cells are also responsible for mediating implantation of the embryo into the endometrium.

Thus, trophoblast stem cells are used to model trophoectoderm differentiation and placental development in vitro. Research suggests that cultured trophoblast stem cells are dependent on FGF-4 signaling pathways. Trophoblasts as a specific cell lineage are crucial for the correct function of the placenta.

Human trophoblast stem cells (hTSCs) are a proliferative population that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous cytotrophoblasts. Many studies have reported that chemical supplements induce the differentiation of trophoblasts from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

Reprogramming of fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising strategy for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

It can be induced by nuclear transfer, cell fusion, or forced transcription factors expression 1, 2. Reprogramming factors (protein, RNAs and small molecules) enables somatic cells to reprogram 3, 4.

Focusing on ES cells recently isolated from different nonhuman species, volume one of Embryonic Stem Cell Protocols: Isolation and Characterization, Second Edition, provides a diverse collection of readily reproducible cellular and molecular protocols for the isolation, maintenance, and characterization of embryonic stem cells.

In vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) has provided quite detailed information on the sequence of epigenetic events assisting in the inactivation of one of the X-chromosomes in embryonic tissues [5,6,7,8,9,10,11].

In differentiating ES cells. Here we present a simple two-step in vitro model of vascularized trophoblastic tissue derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. The first step is the formation of cystic embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension in a semisolid methyl cellulose medium, within which an endothelial platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1 +) cell network develops.Recent advances in regenerative and stem cell biology methods have led to development of novel in vitro model systems for studying human trophoblast.

These include derivation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells and establishment of methods for the differentiation of these cells into trophoblast, as well as the more recent.marker for the differentiation process of trophoblast cells to syncytial trophoblasts.

PMID: Id expressed at a high level in undifferentiated trophoblast stem cells and then down-regulated during early differentiation, and is thought to be a key regulator in the trophoblast giant-cell differentiation pathway.